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Refractive Error Manual is a Course

Refractive Error Manual



Full course description


The Refractive Error Manual is a comprehensive education resource that takes students and teachers through refraction training in an uncomplicated way.

The Refractive Error Manual is comprised of 30 subject units, including diagrams, pictures, flow charts and case studies to illustrate key concepts. The manual, used to develop a training program based on local needs, is suitable for training community or mid-level personnel and assumes no previous knowledge of eye care or refraction.


This resource is delivered through 30 illustrated PDF chapters, available for viewing online or download. 

Summary and 'Test Yourself' questions are included in each chapter.

Brien Holden Vision Institute Academy

The Brien Holden Vision Institute Academy is a center of excellence for global eye health and vision care education.

With a commitment to human resource development and quality life‐long learning, the Academy promotes the implementation of sustainable programs by creating and providing the educational support (courses, resources and advice) essential to human resource capacity building, especially in the developing context.

Underpinning the Academy is the belief that education is the most effective way to build the capacity necessary to influence the change essential for reducing the social and economic effect of avoidable vision impairment.

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